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What it is SNF in Milk & How To Increase SNF In Milk?

The meaning of SNF in milk is Solid-Not-Fat. The substances in milk other than water and butterfat are termed as Solids-Not-Fat (SNF). It is a residual component left after the complete evaporation of water from milk.

3 min read
What it is SNF in Milk & How To Increase SNF In Milk?

Contemporary times call for conscious eating. To know what is in your food and how it got there is one of the best ways to do so. What is one such ingredient it wouldn't hurt to know about that is consumed by children and adults alike? Milk. Whether it is a bowl of cereal or a steaming cup of coffee, milk is a constant. So let us learn about its SNF content.

What Is SNF In Milk?

The meaning of SNF in milk is Solid-Not-Fat. The substances in milk other than water and butterfat are termed as Solids-Not-Fat (SNF). It is a residual component left after the complete evaporation of water from milk.

SNF in milk includes lactose, vitamins, calcium, minerals, fat, protein and other nutrients. These contribute significantly to the nutritive value of milk. Ordinarily, cow milk should contain more than 8.5% SNF whereas, buffalo milk should contain 9.0% SNF.

Crisis In Indian Dairy Industry & Effect On Milk Production

The dairy industry has emerged as a lifeline for the rural economy in India in the past few decades. However, given the inflation in the cost of milk and milk products, the demand for milk is subject to price changes.

The covid-19 pandemic has severely impacted the dairy sector. The demand for milk, particularly in urban areas, has reduced. This has severely affected the economy of the dairy industry.

Also read: Almond milk vs Soy milk vs Regular milk

Current crisis in dairy sector:

●   Milk production is subject to seasonal variations. Buffaloes produce more milk during winter-spring and less in the summer.

●   To survive this fluctuation, the farmers usually convert the excess milk of the winter season into skimmed milk powder (SMP) and butter for balancing in the summers.

●   The above balancing model was collapsed by the post-covid closing of restaurants, hotels, canteens, and sweet marts.

●   The bulk sale of milk crashed. Since the pandemic, weddings, parties, functions and other social get-togethers are less frequent and much less crowded. Hence a decline in the demand for milk and milk products.

●   Mismatch in demand and supply chain has led to a crisis.

●   Dairies have been accumulating powder and fat stocks throughout this period. The stockpile will worsen once production increases in the coming months.

Dairy farmers need the following facilities to continue their business and to improve the milk industry.

  • Firstly, a stable market and profitable price (giving more weightage to the quantity of milk) for liquid milk.

  • Secondly, uninterrupted supply of fodder and cattle feed at a reasonable cost.

  • Lastly, regular supply of veterinary services and medicines for animals.

How To Increase SNF In Milk?

Low SNF content in milk is due to a lack of protein and nutrients in the diet. Reduced mineral mixture feeding and heat stress too add up to lower SNF content.

If cows and buffaloes get adequate nutrition, SNF increases naturally.

Feed 20 to 25 kgs of a variety of green fodder. Avoid mixing legumes such as hedge lucerne, cowpea and green fodder like Sorghum.

It is advisable to provide ten kilograms of dry fodder after evening milking to increase SNF in milk. Minimum four kilograms of concentrated feed for an average milking cow is necessary. Increase this quantity for high milkers.

Mix the following to increase nutritional intake and SNF in milk.

  • 1 groundnut seed cake/cottonseed cake
  • Maize powder
  • Back gram husk/paddy husk

To avoid micro-nutrient deficiency, provide a mineral mixture of about 50grams. Provide 30 litres of clean water.

How To Calculate SNF In Milk Using Formulas?

SNF (Solid Not Fat) and Total Solids of Milk can be calculated by three methods.

i) Gravimetric method

ii) By use of formula

iii) By Richmond’s scale.

How to calculate SNF in milk by using formulas? You can

i) Determine the fat percentage of the milk sample by Gerber’s method.

ii) Record lactometer reading and temperature of the milk and calculate.

iii) Input the value of fat and Corrected Lactometer Reading (CLR) in the following formula to calculate SNF in milk.

SNF% = (CLR ÷ 4) + 0.21F + 0.14

Summing Up...SNF In Milk

SNF stands for the Solid-Non-Fat Content in milk products. Any other substances in milk excluding butterfat and water fall under the SNF category. The SNF quantity in milk has taken a hit due to the COVID-19 pandemic and an imbalance in the demand and supply chain.

Low SNF in milk is mainly caused due to a protein and nutrient deficient diet. Hence, the next time you purchase milk, you can use the formulas given above to calculate its SNF value!


Is SNF in milk good for health?

SNF is an essential component of milk. As per Indian Standard and FSS Regulations, SNF in milk should not be less than 8.5 per cent by mass.

SNF in milk is associated with health benefits like bone mineral density. It also lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease.

How much SNF is in Cow Milk?

Cow milk contains fat and solids (SNF). The SNF is made up of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Cow milk contains 3.5% fat and 8.5% SNF.

Which animal milk has the highest SNF?

Buffalo milk contains the highest SNF, 8.97%, followed by cow milk, 8.39%. Buffalo milk is also enriched with calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.


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